I A Msterdam
From the Van Gogh Museum take a short stroll across Museum Plein (Museum Square) to Het Rijksmuseum. The museum houses some of the Netherland's most prized art treasures and an exhibit on the Dutch "Golden Age" (17th century) when the Netherlands thrived in sea trade, science, and art. It's been under renovation forever and has its official opening in April 2013 - though you can visit a part of the collection already.
Anne Frank House
If your English teacher didn't make you read Anne Frank in middle school, pick it from the library (or download it on your kindle / ipad / other electronic device) before you check out the House. It will make this place come to life in a whole different way. Regardless, the museum offers a unique experience as you walk through the secret annex where Anne and her family hid from Nazi persecution for over two years during World War II.
Probably one of the most tourist-filled and lively squares in Amsterdam, Leidseplein is great for people watching, grabbing a local beer, and trying out two dutch specialties: "oliebollen" and "friet met mayonaise". Oliebollen (I won't give you the literal translation) are balls of fried dough with powdered sugar - better than any funnel cake you will ever have. Friet met mayonaise (french fries with mayonnaise) are a must-have before you leave. You can't say you don't like it until you try it, and once you do, you'll love it!
Canals and the Red Light District
You cannot visit Amsterdam without walking (or better yet, biking) past the many canals that run through the city and, eventually, making your way over to the Red Light District. Early evening is generally best if you're curious to see what all the fuss is about without seeming like you're actually a potential customer!